• What is Vision Therapy
  • Acquired Brain Injury
  • Learning Related Vision Problems
  • Strabismus & Amblyopia
  • Sports Vision Enhancement
  • Optometric Syntonic Phototherapy
  • Visual Snow Syndrome

Optometric Vision Therapy is an area of optometric care that focuses on developing, improving, and enhancing an individual’s visual performance. It is an individualized treatment program prescribed by a doctor of optometry to treat various visual deficits that affect all areas of life, such as learning, sports, and job performance. If you experience visual discomfort even with 20/20 vision you may benefit from vision therapy. Vision therapy can be effective but requires a commitment to bring about results.

Optometric Vision Therapy effectively treats & improves:

  • Eye Movement
    • Difficulty maintaining fixation
    • Reduced tracking skills (pursuits & saccades)
    • Nystagmus (involuntary shaking of the eyes)
  • Focusing
    • Reduced acuity (amblyopia/lazy eye)
    • Difficulty maintaining clear focus (accommodation)
    • Difficulty changing focus from near and far
  • Binocularity (eye alignment)
    • Crossed eye/wandering eye (strabismus)
    • Convergence Insufficiency
    • Divergence Excess, Poor depth perception
  • Visual-Motor Integration
    • Poor hand-eye coordination
    • Difficulty crossing midline
    • Poor balance
    • Clumsy behavior
    • Sloppy handwriting
    • Difficulty catching/hitting a ball
  • Visual Information Processing
    • Poor memory
    • Difficulty finding objects in a busy environment
    • Letter/number reversals
    • Poor visualization abilities
    • Poor reading comprehension
    • Difficulty spelling

Each vision therapy program is unique and is designed on an individual basis depending on a patient’s specific needs. Vision therapy uses a combination of optical devices and physical and visual activities. Vision therapy options include in-office, online (video conferencing), computer-based, and at-home therapy sessions.

If you think you may have a vision disorder, take this quick survey here:

For more information regarding Vision Therapy and Rehabilitation, please call our office or visit:

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There is nothing mild about injuring your brain

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) can be broken into two categories:

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

  • Motor Vehicle Accidents
  • Sports
  • Workplace injuries
  • Falls
  • Violence
  • Concussion

Non-Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Stroke
  • Aneurysm
  • Infection (i.e. meningitis, malaria, encephalitis)
  • Anoxia/Hypoxia (i.e. heart attack, drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • Toxic drugs or chemicals

Statistics show that 160,000 Canadians will experience a brain injury each year. (Braininjurycanada.ca, 2017). According to the Canadian Institute for Health Research:

  • Traumatic Brain Injury is the key cause of disability in individuals under the age of 45
  • Two-thirds of mild traumatic brain injuries occur in males
  • Traumatic Brain Injuries are most common in the young and the elderly
  • There is increasing evidence that multiple mild TBIs may pre-dispose to early onset dementia, later substance-use disorders and mental illness
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Vision is the most pervasive sense in the brain. In fact, 35 areas of the brain are primarily or totally involved with the processing of visual information and there are at least 305 intra-cortical pathways that link these 35 areas. Furthermore, 65% of the sensory information in the brain is visual and there are more areas of the brain dedicated to vision than all the other sense modalities combined.

Any disruptions or disturbances to any of these 35 areas of the brain or any of these 305 intra-cortical connections can have a negative effect on vision and result in symptoms such as, but not limited to, light sensitivity, blurry vision, double vision, tired/aching eyes, headaches worsening with visual tasks, visual field loss, fatigue, difficulty reading, comprehension difficulty, difficulty with memory, and difficulty with attention.

Optometric Neuro-Vision Rehabilitation can resolve many of the effects of Acquired Brain Injury. Individuals do not need to live with these symptoms. InDepth Vision offers Optometric Neuro-Vision Rehabilitation which includes many different treatment options such as lenses, prisms, filters, overlays, vision therapy, and syntonics.

For more information regarding Neuro-Vision Rehabilitation, please call our office or visit:

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Double vision is extremely disruptive to reading. It often gets worse as the day wears on, or as reading extends beyond a few minutes. Many children block the vision of one eye in order to avoid seeing double.

Successful learning requires an individual’s eyes, brain, and body to all work together as a team. When they don’t, even someone with 20/20 eyesight can have trouble gathering, processing, and responding to visual information.

As children move on to higher grades, their visual demand is constantly increasing (i.e. the size of print in schoolbooks becomes smaller, time spent reading and studying increases, etc), which makes an efficient and accurate visual system even more important.

It is estimated that 80% of classroom learning is visual and that 1 in 4 children has some form of vision problem. What makes things difficult is that children rarely complain of vision problems, as they don’t know that what they are seeing isn’t how everyone else sees.

Children with vision issues (i.e. convergence insufficiency) are often misdiagnosed as having a learning or behavioral condition such as dyslexia or ADHD. This is due to the fact that 15 of the 18 symptoms of ADHD and 13 of the 17 symptoms of dyslexia can also be associated with vision disorders. If your child has been diagnosed with a learning disability or is having behavioral difficulties, we highly recommend bringing them in for an assessment.

Any child who struggles with school work, reading, sports, and/or attention may have an undiagnosed visual problem that is holding them back.

Vision Rehabilitation Milton

There are many ways in which vision issues can present, such as:

Symptoms Possible Vision Problems
  • Complains of blurred vision
  • Rubs eyes frequently
  • Squints
  • Nearsightedness
  • Farsightedness
  • Astigmatism
  • Closes of covers one eye
  • Double vision
  • Rubs eyes frequently
  • Able to read for only a short time
  • Poor reading comprehension
  • Words move on the page
Eye coordination problem (inability to coordinate the eyes together effectively)
  • Holds things very close
  • Complains of blurred vision
  • Poor reading comprehension
  • Says eyes are tired
  • Able to read for only a short time
  • Has headaches when reading
Eye focusing problems (inability to easily refocus eyes or maintain clear focus)
  • Moves head when reading
  • Frequently loses place, skips lines when reading
  • Uses finger to keep place
  • Poor reading comprehension
  • Short attention span
Eye tracking problems (inadequate ability to smoothly and accurately move the eyes from one point to another)
  • Mistakes words with similar beginnings
  • Difficulty recognizing letters, words, or simple shapes and forms
  • Can’t distinguish the main idea from insignificant details
  • Trouble learning basic math concepts of size, magnitude and position
Faulty visual form perception (inability to discriminate differences in size, shape, or form)
  • Trouble visualizing what is read
  • Poor reading comprehension
  • Poor speller
  • Trouble with mathematical concepts
  • Poor recall of visually presented material
Faulty visual memory (inability to remember and understand what is seen)
  • Sloppy handwriting and drawing
  • Can’t stay on lines
  • Poor copying skills
  • Can respond orally but not in writing
Faulty visual motor integration (inability to process and reproduce visual images by writing or drawing)
  • Trouble learning right & left
  • Reverses letters, numbers or words
  • Trouble writing and remembering letters and numbers
Difficulty with laterality and directionality (poor development of right/left awareness)

Table courtesy of COVD

Optometric Vision Therapy re-trains the brain’s control of the eyes and visual system to improve the visual skills necessary for effective learning, reading, and writing. Optimizing these visual skills allows a child to perform up to their full potential without vision holding them back.

For more information regarding Learning Related Vision Problems, please call our office or visit:

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It is never too late to treat a lazy eye

Any treatment that addresses the eye muscles alone will likely not change the brain and nervous system enough to improve vision

Research has shown that both strabismus and amblyopia can be treated at any age

Vision therapy trains the brain to use both eyes together as a team

Strabismus, commonly referred to as an eye turn, crossed eyes, or wall-eyed, is a visual condition in which an individual’s eyes are not aligned; this can occur intermittently or be constant. The eye turn may be inward, outward, upward, downward, or a combination of these. In order for the individual to not have double vision, the brain will often suppress one eye, which can result in Amblyopia (“lazy eye”).

Amblyopia, commonly referred to as lazy eye, is a visual condition in which vision is reduced due to the eye and brain not working together properly. This reduction in vision is not a result of ocular disease. Amblyopia most commonly occurs in one eye but can occur in both eyes. A few possible causes of amblyopia are strabismus (eye turn), asymmetric prescription, high prescription, or cataracts. According to the National Institute of Health, amblyopia is the most common cause of visual impairment among children.

Vision Therapists Milton

Someone with Strabismus or Amblyopia may experience:

  • Reduced depth perception
  • Poor spatial localization (where your brain perceives an object in space)
  • Headaches due to visual stress
  • Self-esteem issues due to the appearance of “crossed eyes” or “wandering eyes”
  • Visual processing problems

Previously, it was thought that individuals with these conditions couldn’t be helped after a certain age, the “critical period”. In the past, the cut-off age for treating amblyopia was typically around age 7-9. Recent research has disproven this long-held belief and shown that both strabismus and amblyopia can be treated at any age.

Why not Patching or Surgery?

Traditionally patching has often been used as a treatment for these conditions. Patching can lead to increased visual acuity (eyesight) in the unpatched eye but does not train the brain to use both eyes together as a team. Instead patching actually encourages the brain to only use one eye at a time. When patching is discontinued the brain will resume the way it knows best how to use the eyes, and thus regression typically occurs.

Surgery typically only treats the cosmetic elements of strabismus, it does not restore binocular vision (eye teaming). In most cases, strabismus is not caused by a problem with the eye muscles themselves, instead it is usually due to the brain having a hard time controlling & coordinating the two eyes together as a team. Even though the eyes appear straighter after surgery the brain typically continues to only use one eye at a time leaving a person with double vision, suppression, and/or lacking depth perception. Often the eye will turn again over time, therefore requiring multiple surgeries over the individual’s lifetime. Any treatment that addresses the eye muscles alone will likely not change the brain and nervous system enough to improve vision.

Vision Therapy for Strabismus and Amblyopia

Vision therapy is a non-surgical treatment that strengthens the Amblyopic or Strabismic eye and trains the brain to use both eyes as a team. Research has shown over and over again that vision therapy is an effective treatment for strabismus and amblyopia. Vision therapy can improve binocular vision and depth perception, along with other functional visual skills. With training, vision becomes comfortable and efficient. In addition to this, it also creates cosmetic improvements that are lasting.

The team at InDepth Vision is trained to design a vision therapy program to treat Amblyopia and Strabismus. Through a variety of eye exercises, bodywork, lenses, and/or other therapy devices the patient will be led to the ability to make lasting changes in their eyes, body, and brain. If you or someone you know has an eye turn or lazy eye, call the clinic today to schedule an appointment to see how we can help.

For more information regarding Strabismus and Amblyopia, please call our office or visit:

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Vision Therapy Clinic Milton


Vision is an essential aspect of athletic performance. Unfortunately, it is also one of the areas of training that are often overlooked. Whether you play hockey, baseball, soccer, or another sport, we are here to help you take your game to the next level. Many athletes, amateur and professional alike, have had great improvements in their sports performance following vision training. Sports Vision training is individually designed for the athlete and the type of sport. Sports Vision Training has been shown to improve:

  • Tracking
  • Eye coordination
  • Eye-hand-body coordination
  • Dynamic visual acuity
  • Reaction time
  • Depth perception
  • Peripheral vision
  • Visualization
  • Visual concentration
  • Visual memory
Emergency Eye Care Milton

For more information regarding Sports Vision Enhancement, please call our office or visit:

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Keep your vision in balance

Optometric Syntonic Phototherapy, or Syntonics, is a branch of ocular science dealing with the application of specific wavelengths of light (colors) through the eyes. It has been used effectively by Optometrists, since the 1920s, in the treatment of visual dysfunctions, including strabismus (eye turn, crossed eye, wandering eye), amblyopia (lazy eye), focusing, and convergence problems, learning disorders, and the after-effects of stress and trauma. In recent years, Syntonics has been shown to be effective in the treatment of brain injuries and emotional disorders.

Not all retinal nerves in the eyes serve vision; some connect the retina directly to non-visual brain centers such as the hypothalamus and pineal gland. These centers influence electrical, chemical, and hormonal balances which affect all body functions including vision. Years of clinical application and research have demonstrated that certain wavelengths of light, applied by way of the eyes to these centers, can produce beneficial results in the body. The Greeks were the first to document the use of phototherapy. Currently, light is used, in multiple areas of medicine for a variety of disorders; from the “bili” lights used on newborns with jaundice, to the more recent psychiatric use of light for the treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). In optometry, the use of phototherapy to treat visual dysfunctions is called Syntonics.

Patients are diagnosed by symptoms, vision evaluation, visual/motor performance, peripheral vision sensitivity, and pupillary assessment. If appropriate, they are treated by exposure to a selected specific wavelength of light; this exposure can be in many different forms (i.e. through a syntonizer, a pair of syntonic glasses, a penlight, etc).

Controlled clinical studies by Dr. Robert Michael Kaplan and Dr. Jacob Liberman proved that the usual result of this relatively short-term treatment is improvement in visual skills, peripheral vision, memory, behavior, mood, general performance, and academic achievement. They confirmed that large numbers of children with learning problems have a reduction in the sensitivity of their peripheral vision. During and after phototherapy they demonstrated improvement in peripheral vision and visual skills. Control subjects who did not receive therapy showed no improvement in their peripheral vision, symptoms, or performance.

Syntonics can be used as the primary treatment, or to support other therapies to aid in the remediation of strabismus, amblyopia, accommodative or convergence problems, asthenopia, ametropia, visual attention deficit, vision-related learning and behavior problems, and visual field constrictions associated with visual stress, brain injury, degenerative ocular disorders, and emotional trauma.

Text provided by College of Syntonic Optometry (CSO)

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Is a neurological condition that is characterized by persistent visual abnormalities. These abnormalities can range from mild to severe, with the main abnormality being visual snow, often described as constant flashing dots or static throughout the visual field. Visual Snow Syndrome impacts an individual’s vision, hearing, cognition, sensory processing and quality of life. Visual Snow Syndrome can affect all ages and backgrounds. The exact cause of Visual Snow Syndrome is still unknown but research is still on going. It has been suggested that Visual Snow Syndrome is related to changes in the visual processing centers of the brain and alterations in the neural signals between the eyes and the brain, it has also been linked to hyperactivity in the visual cortex of the brain. Studies on the effectiveness of Neuro-Optometric Vision Rehabilitation Therapy for those with visual snow syndrome have showed an improvement in Quality of Life through this treatment.

Visual Snow Syndrome

As previously stated, the manifestations of Visual Snow Syndrome differ considerably among individuals, but frequently comprise some or all of the following:

Visual Symptoms

  • Visual snow (dynamic snow-like dots across the entire visual field)
  • Palinopsia (continuing to see an image after the stimulus has been removed)
  • Photopsia (flashes of light or small floating objects)
  • Enhanced entoptic phenomena (excessive floaters and rings of light shooting across the entire visual field, more noticeable when looking at bright surfaces such as the blue sky)
  • Photophobia (sensitivity or intolerance to light)
  • Nyctalopia (impaired night vision)
  • Diplopia (double vision)
  • Other visual phenomena, such as starbursts and halos

Non-Visual Symptoms

  • Tinnitus (ringing or buzzing noise in the ears)
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Depersonalization (feeling detached from yourself)
  • Frequent migraines
  • Brain fog and confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Paresthesia (tingling “pins-and-needles” sensations, commonly in the arms, hands, legs and feet)
  • Insomnia and other sleep-related issues

A Neuro-Optometric Vision Rehabilitation assessment for Visual Snow Syndrome involves in-office examinations to evaluate the individual’s visual system and to identify any underlying issues that may be contributing to their symptoms.

Neuro-Optometric Vision Rehabilitation is a specialized therapy that uses novel experiences and activities to improve visual function and the quality of life for those with neuro-vision conditions. A variety of active therapies are used to reeducate the visual system (eyes, brain and body). These activities are tailored to the individual, and follow their specific needs.

Along with active therapy, those with Visual Snow have found improvements in their symptoms with various lenses, prisms and tints that their Neuro-Rehabilitative Optometrist can prescribe.

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a condition in which an individual, while sober, re-experiences the perceptual disturbances that occurred while they were under the influence of a hallucinogenic substance. A common manifestation of Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is visual snow. HPPD is linked to previous exposure to psychedelic drugs, and can be aggravated or triggered by substance use. Visual Snow Syndrome, on the other hand, can arise spontaneously without any substance use history.

At this time there are no studies on HPPD and Neuro-Optometric Vision Rehabilitation, however assessment and treatment of any underlying visual conditions may help to reduce some visual symptoms and improve quality of life.


1 - Visual Snow Initiative : https://www.visualsnowinitiative.org/

2 - Dr Tsang, Dr Shidlofsky The Efficacy of Neuro-Optometric Visual Rehabilitation Therapy in patient with Visual Snow Suntrome. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36545398/


The Significance of Vision Therapy

Contrary to the common belief that having 20/20 vision indicates perfect vision, many individuals struggle with various visual challenges that cannot be corrected by glasses or contacts alone. These challenges might include difficulties with eye coordination, focusing, tracking, depth perception, visual processing, and more. These issues can manifest as eye strain, headaches, blurred vision, double vision, or difficulties in reading, writing, or concentrating on tasks.

Optometric Vision Therapy in Milton addresses these concerns by offering a personalized and structured program. It's not just about sharpening eyesight but enhancing the brain's ability to interpret and respond to visual information efficiently, leading to improved overall performance in daily tasks, academics, sports, and professional pursuits.

InDepth Vision's Approach

At InDepth Vision, our dedicated team of experienced optometrists recognizes the unique nature of each patient's visual challenges. We conduct thorough assessments to pinpoint specific visual deficits and develop tailored therapy programs accordingly.

Customized Treatment Plans

Every individual undergoes a customized treatment plan based on their particular needs. This plan may involve a combination of specialized tools, physical exercises, and visual activities. Through a series of sessions, we systematically work to improve eye coordination, focusing abilities, visual tracking, depth perception, and other essential visual skills.

Versatile Therapy Options

We offer a variety of therapy options to accommodate diverse preferences and circumstances. In-office sessions provide hands-on guidance and supervision, ensuring proper technique and progress. For those unable to visit our office, we provide online sessions via video conferencing, maintaining effective communication and guidance remotely. Additionally, computer-based exercises and at-home therapy sessions offer flexibility, enabling patients to continue their progress independently.

Commitment and Results

Optometric Vision Therapy in Milton is a process that requires commitment and consistency to yield optimal results. While the journey might involve effort and persistence, the potential benefits are immense. Clients often experience reduced visual discomfort, improved reading and learning abilities, enhanced sports performance, and increased confidence in various tasks.


Empowering Individuals through Vision Enhancement

InDepth Vision is committed to empowering individuals by unlocking their visual potential through Optometric Vision Therapy in Milton. Our holistic approach, personalized programs, and versatile therapy options aim to improve not just eyesight but overall visual function, fostering confidence and success in every aspect of life.

Contact InDepth Vision today to embark on a personalized vision enhancement journey and experience the transformative benefits of Optometric Vision Therapy in Milton.

Vision Therapy

Customized Precision

InDepth Vision’s Optometric Vision Therapy stands out due to its unwavering commitment to tailored precision. We acknowledge that no two individuals have the same visual challenges. Our approach begins with comprehensive assessments, delving deep into understanding each patient's specific visual deficits. This meticulous evaluation forms the basis for crafting highly personalized therapy programs. By pinpointing exact areas of concern, we design exercises and implement specialized tools tailored to address these unique needs. This customized precision ensures that every therapy session is purposeful and directly contributes to the improvement of the individual’s visual abilities. InDepth Vision's dedication to precision and personalized treatment underscores our commitment to providing effective and targeted Optometric Vision Therapy in Milton for each patient's distinctive requirements.

Beyond 20/20 Vision

While achieving 20/20 vision is often considered an indicator of perfect eyesight, InDepth Vision recognizes that visual excellence extends beyond mere clarity. Optometric Vision Therapy focuses on enhancing essential visual skills that might not be corrected by glasses or contacts alone. This specialized approach goes deeper, aiming to refine aspects such as eye coordination, focusing abilities, visual tracking, depth perception, and visual processing. InDepth Vision's therapy programs aim not just to sharpen eyesight but to optimize the brain’s interpretation and response to visual information. By enhancing these fundamental visual skills, individuals experience improvements in various facets of life, from academic performance to sports proficiency and overall confidence in daily activities. This comprehensive approach distinguishes InDepth Vision's Optometric Vision Therapy in Milton as a transformative solution for enhancing visual capabilities beyond the conventional standards of 20/20 vision.

Flexible Therapy Options

InDepth Vision acknowledges that flexibility is key to successful Optometric Vision Therapy. Our diverse range of therapy options caters to various lifestyles and preferences, ensuring accessibility without compromising the effectiveness of the treatment. In-office sessions offer a hands-on approach, allowing our experienced professionals to guide and monitor progress closely. For those unable to attend in-person sessions, our online therapy sessions via video conferencing provide a seamless experience, maintaining effective communication and guidance remotely. Additionally, we offer computer-based exercises and at-home therapy sessions, enabling patients to continue their progress independently. This flexibility in therapy options allows individuals to choose the mode that best suits their schedules and comfort levels, ensuring continuity and consistency in their vision enhancement journey.

Empowerment through Commitment

At InDepth Vision, we understand that Optometric Vision Therapy in Milton requires dedication and commitment to yield significant results. Our approach emphasizes a collaborative partnership between our experts and patients, fostering a supportive environment throughout the therapy journey. By instilling a sense of commitment and guiding individuals through structured programs, we empower them to embrace the process and actively participate in their vision enhancement. The commitment to regular sessions and practice exercises enables patients to experience tangible improvements, from reduced visual discomfort to enhanced performance and confidence in daily activities. Through this commitment-driven approach, InDepth Vision aims to empower individuals to take charge of their visual health and realize the transformative benefits of Optometric Vision Therapy.


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